6. Media Investigations

Part One – Critical Frameworks

Media Topics :

  1. Genre – Genre is a style or category of film that specifies to certain attributes and key ideas that interest other people more than others based on personal preference.
  2. Narrative – Narrative is almost like the format that the story of the film of show is told, where the pre – production team will develop an idea of what will happen in the film, when, and what it will result in later in the film or in a sequel.
  3. Representation – Representation is a system where films can use certain stereotypes that have automatically been assigned to certain genders over the years, for example, men are strong, competitive, rough etc. A film will avoid the “stereotyping card” by basing characters upon these natural attributes given to characters.
  4. Audience – A director can influence and manipulate audiences by using certain subtle injections of individual messages through out the film running time. For example, “The Hypodermic needle Theory”, says exactly what I said above, for an example of this theory, is through the use of harsher violence on-screen causes an increase in violence and crime.
  5. Regulation – Regulation is where certain specific censorship companies will prevent film-makers from putting out content that has been deemed to explicit, violent or any other censorship filter, for example, in the UK we have an age rating system that prevent certain people of certain ages from buying a film that has been rated higher than their age.
  6. Technology – In the filming industry, Technology is massively important, the film industry has only been a massively mainstream thing for around 70 years now, so it is heavily dependent on the current technologies, for example, 3D films, motion capture, colour and digital film.
  7. Production/Distribution/Exhibition – The problem in the film industry with the production, distribution and exhibition is conglomerate companies, companies used to expand vertically, where they would own all processes of the production, distribution and exhibition when it came to certain films, this was made illegal as no new film companies were given a chance to grow, and now companies will expand horizontally growing huge franchises and profiting from as many forms of media as possible.
  8. Marketing and Promotion – Marketing and Promotion in the film industry is where companies will have an idea that they will do well once the audience of the film industry knows what it’s about and what it entails, so they will do huge amounts of audience research and marketing research to develop and camping that they think will generate enough hype around the film to increase the profits from the film.

Part Two – Choosing your Focus Area

My Focus Area :

Choose ONE specific Industry Choose ONE Specific Media Topic Area
Television
InternetRadio/Podcast
Film
Music
Newspaper
Magazine (including comics)
Advertising
Computer Games
Genre
Narrative
Representation
Audience
Regulation
Technology (including digital media)
Production/Distribution/Exhibition
Marketing and Promotion  
How has Technology changed Protest Music in the last Fifty Years?

Abstract :

In my my essay in general I want explore how technology for music production and recording has changed since the 70’s and how over the years, new technology has beaten the old and revolutionised the industry to the point to where we are today, where any teenager with a laptop can become an artist at choice. This is seen as a good thing as any artists, from the time before this current advancement, that could not afford travel to recording studios were lost and that is music that the world will never hear and some – most people see this as a loss to the world of music.

My first pointers are the invention of certain technological advancements, for example, the 60’s brought the world FM and AM radio and it was an absolute hit, everyone bought and radio and radio streaming companies made a lot of net gain. I will also be mentioning the invention of Vinyls and their players, multi-track and cassette tapes, synths and vocoders and car stereos continued to be heavily used. Eventually, new technological advances came with CDs, pocket-sized digital music players, and even entire genres, like hip-hop and techno, which would continue to be extremely popular well into the 21st century.

I will be doing my research by exploring different forms of information based media, for example, I will be reading books, magazines, online and hard copy articles to expand my knowledge on the development of technology with music since the 70’s. I will also be exploring the art of protest music and how music can influence and manipulate an audience to prove an issue within the world that the artist can form using their lyrics and song meaning. This can be seen as a bad thing for the people who see the protest as a bad thing, I personally believe that standing up for something that you truly believe in is so important and that being pushed over by governments or companies is wrong and protests are the only way to get heard in difficult situations such as the monopolisation of certain forms of media or anything really.

In my opinion, I think music and technology go hand in hand as music heavily rely’s on the current technology at the time, for me personally being able to go home and just have the recourses available to me enough to become my own musician and be able to express a freedom of creativity, all on my computer is amazing. I highly believe in the freedom of music and how music is all involved in the freedom surround it. Maybe my opinion will change after my research due to the fact the freedom of music can be seen as a double-edge sword and the contrasting side of the freedom is the this gives people the option to rebel and protest using music and the influence this can have on the listeners has been found to result in uprisings that then go on the further the issue with causalities and very rarely a fatality.

Part Three – Research and Explore Focus Area

Sources :

1. Hogan, M. (2020). Music Technology of the 1970s: A Timeline. [online] Pitchfork.com. Available at: https://pitchfork.com/features/lists-and-guides/9940-music-technology-of-the-1970s-a-timeline/ [Accessed 6 Mar. 2020].

From this source I gathered a range of different information about the time of certain technological advancements came in the last fifty years. I also gained a wider view on my own knowledge from this as I have discovered different synthesisers and older inventions such as FM radio and AM radio with how popular it was. This website was very useful to me a it gave a brief insight to the build up to the technological phenomena of the 70’s for music. It also mentions the invention of “portable keyboards” in 1975 with poly-moog machine.

2. JB, M. (2020). How To Get The Classic Studio Sound: 70s Rock, Pop and Disco. [online] MusicTech. Available at: https://www.musictech.net/guides/buyers-guide/classic-studio-sound-70s-rock-pop-disco/ [Accessed 6 Mar. 2020]

This source provides me with an in-depth portfolio into VST’s ( Visual Studio Technology ) or plug-ins that instead of it being actual physical synths. this source gives me a brief description of all the different, ancient synths, describing when they would have been popular between artists, their release date and their other specifications and information about them. Some – most of these synths would have a physical version of itself, but this is the difference between a VST and an actual moog synth or portable keyboard, VST’s harness the power of your computer to generate sounds, where as a moog synth will harness it’s power from its own CPU core.

3. National Museums Liverpool. 2020. The 1980S And New Recording Techniques. [online] Available at: <https://www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/1980s-and-new-recording-techniques> [Accessed 10 March 2020].

In this piece of text published by the ‘National Museums Liverpool’, it gives me more information on what is currently what is considered to be the greatest technological advancement in music history. The invention of MIDI ( Musical Instrument Digital Interface ). It goes on to mention that this meant for artists the birth of what we basically know as ‘Digital Music’ as artists no longer needed to live record all their music to be able to finish a song, now they could go back and edit certain things, tweak it a little bit when they wanted, opening up a whole new path for pop music in general. This saw the birth of what is today the biggest genre in the world, Hip – Hop.

4. Seven Integration. 2020. Music And Technology: A 50-Year History In The Making. [online] Available at: <https://sevenintegration.co.uk/music-technology-50-year-history-making/> [Accessed 10 March 2020].

This source gives me very useful information on how the different eras of music felt and sounded like to the British people. Giving me brief descriptions on the flower power hippie 60’s, to the new pop and house culture evolving in London’s underground scenes. In the 70’s, the 8 – Track recorder was still being used to record music, portable synths and keyboards were being used but very rarely as this was considered extremely new technology at the time so few had enough budget to purchase one. during the 80’s, other massive industries were being formed through forms of media, like the gaming industry and mainstream Hollywood filming and home entertainment systems in general. This had an effect on the music industry as this opened up new alleyways for music for video games and other new media.

This source also touches briefly on American protest music. We’re in the 80’s so it has information on NWA and the current rising hip-hop genre. “NWA were utilising technological advancements to make strides out of violent and deprived American neighbourhoods into the homes of music lovers across the world.”

From this source I will take the side of music into the 70’s where protest music and the era blended in well and saw many similarities as protest music was beginning to become popular music and saw many audiences across the world due to its general popularity. This is where I will incorporate protest music into my essay as the 70’s music audience was generally wanting to listen to protest music. This also would have seen the birth of new music due to the fact artists would have felt the need to stand up to something at one point or another.

‘N.W.A’

5. White, D., 2020. 14 Of The Best Protest Songs Of The ’60S And ’70S. [online] LiveAbout. Available at: <https://www.liveabout.com/anti-war-protest-songs-of-the-60s-and-70s-748278> [Accessed 10 March 2020].

This Source informs me on the music influence that the Vietnam war had during the 60’s and slowly running into the 70’s. Anti-War music was very popular and saw the birth of huge festivals during the 60’s due to its surging popularity. ‘Woodstock’ is probably the most well known 60’s anti-war festival.

Furthermore, it mentions the censor of anti-war music on British mainstream radio stations but it found a radio audience of the ‘underground’ or ‘alternative’ stations of FM radio. The source also gives me a list of massively popular anti-war music of the time where I can gather what sing was pushing which movement of the time to establish what the artist of the specific songs stood for.

6. Sawer, P., 2020. People Still Suffering And Bob Marley’S Message As Relevant As Ever, Says Friend And Collaborator Junior Marvin. [online] The Telegraph. Available at: <https://www.telegraph.co.uk/music/interviews/junior-marvin-bob-marley-would-have-had-doubts-black-lives-matter/> [Accessed 10 March 2020].

This source is related to my research through the route of protest music. I wanted to research at least one artist in depth for my protest music research and it could have been none other than Bob Marley. This source gives me lots of information about Marley’s fight with governing bodies and other forces that he thought at the time were in the wrong for what they were doing. It also mentions the fact the Marley’s music lives on way after his death around 40 years ago now and still, his music is played at a mainstream audience level. it quotes “It was Marley who celebrated the liberation of former African colonies with songs such as Africa Unite and Zimbabwe.” In the article they spoke to ‘Junior Marley’, he said that Bob’s music wasn’t a colour thing, it was used in a situation or scenario where oppression, suffering.

‘Bob Marley’

7. Bbc.co.uk. 2020. How Listening To Music Has Changed – CBBC Newsround. [online] Available at: <https://www.bbc.co.uk/newsround/27101804> [Accessed 11 March 2020].

This source gives me lots of information on technological advancements in the UK, due to the fact that it’s BBC which is a British company. It mentions the iPod, where portable music players met the also new technology of digital players to bring us the iPod in 2001. it revolutionised and forced the way that music works to more of a ‘wherever you want to listen’ path rather than ‘you have to go where music is played’ path. At the time, the text mentions the fact that it boasted the fact it could download 100 songs at a time which in those days was a technological miracle.

This text goes deeper into the ‘apple crazed era’ for technological advancements as the next massive invention for the music industry was the iPod touch in 2007, where by connecting your iPod to the internet, you could wirelessly download, any song you want from the iTunes Store. This is a moment where apple began to really put themselves on the map of technology based corporations. Some say this is where apple makes it’s most money due the fact that in this era of music, apple bent the rules to their will leaving them a lee-way in to technological advancement domination.

8. Scrimgeour, H., 2020. How Technology Is Changing The Music Business. [online] The Telegraph. Available at: <https://www.telegraph.co.uk/connect/small-business/business-solutions/how-technology-is-changing-music-business/> [Accessed 11 March 2020].

This source has provided me with some very useful statistics on how music has changed due to technology in the uk.”The Entertainment Retailers Association found that UK music revenues grew by %9.6 last year, partly due to the rise of streaming services such as Spotify, Pandora, Apple Music and Deezer. According to the body, Brits spent £577m on streaming subscriptions in 2017, which is up %41.9 from the year before.”

Isaac Mao, creator of free-streaming platform Musicoin, believes that “Currently, musicians only derive a paltry portion of the total revenue generated from their work,” explains Mao. “The global music industry is dominated by companies that dictate market rules that are favourable to them.” 

This to me is genuine proof that modern day streaming platforms have a massive influence on how many people can listen to music these days. Companies like Spotify and Deezer provide a service where any song ever can be accessed all through a monthly pay system is revolutionary and will change the face of music for years to come. Websites like Soundcloud even don’t enforce ‘many’ copyright laws so using certain (what is considered) copyrighted material is all okay to use and share online there.

9. Deaux, J., 2020. THE IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY ON THE MUSIC INDUSTRY. [online] All About The Rock. Available at: <http://allabouttherock.co.uk/impact-technology-music-industry/> [Accessed 11 March 2020].

This text provides me with a list of pros to the current advancements in the music technological industry. For example, ‘easier promotion’. All it takes for someone to promote their music online nowadays, is to go to promotion websites and pay a fee, bang, your new song is being promoted a range of platforms, from popular social media, to on youtube. This is music different as 50 years ago, in the 70’s you would have to be under a label, paying out royalties on your music to even get your music on shelves in the first place.

The text reads “Accessibility, Gone are the days when one had to take a long walk to a music shop to look for the latest or favourite song. It has never been easier for the consumers to access music right at the fingertips. File sharing sites, some illegal and others legal in nature, have transformed the way music is accessed.”

10. Deaux, J., 2020. THE IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY ON THE MUSIC INDUSTRY. [online] All About The Rock. Available at: <http://allabouttherock.co.uk/impact-technology-music-industry/> [Accessed 11 March 2020].

This source gives different examples of different ways that music has been effected by tech in the modern era. One of the most significant changes in how we make and consume music has been through various online music libraries, such as iTunes. A few decades ago, musicians relied on album and record purchases in order to distribute their music and make a profit.The development of effect pedals has resulted in countless sound effect opportunities for musicians of all different genres. As pedals continue to develop, musicians have become closer to being able to create almost any sound effect they could hope for. The development of effect pedals has resulted in countless sound effect opportunities for musicians of all different genres. As pedals continue to develop, musicians have become closer to being able to create almost any sound effect they could hope for.

11. D. Kennedy, G., 2020. The Moment N.W.A Changed The Music World. [online] Los Angeles Times. Available at: <https://www.latimes.com/entertainment/music/la-et-ms-nwa-parental-discretion-20171205-htmlstory.html> [Accessed 11 March 2020].

Touching back to the protest music side of my research. It was a sonic Molotov cocktail that ignited a firestorm when it debuted in 1988. Steered by Dr. Dre and DJ Yella’s dark production and Ice Cube and MC Ren’s striking rhymes, then brought to life by Eazy-E’s wicked charm, the record fused the bombastic sonics of Public Enemy’s production with vicious lyrics that were revolutionary. The world hadn’t heard anything like it before. Radio stations and MTV refused to add the title song to their playlists. Critics didn’t get it, couldn’t see past the language, or, worse, refused to acknowledge it as music. Politicians even launched attacks, working to great lengths to condemn the music and its creators. But as we know in the 21st century, we understand the true musical talent of all five of the members of NWA, and truly recognise their music for what it is in it’s truest form.

‘N.W.A’

From this source I think I want to single my efforts down a bit into ‘how technology has changed protest music in the last 50 years’.

12. Perrone, P., 2020. John Holt: Reggae Artist Best Known For Writing ‘The Tide Is High’. [online] The Independent. Available at: <https://www.independent.co.uk/news/obituaries/john-holt-reggae-artist-best-known-for-writing-the-tide-is-high-9862367.html> [Accessed 11 March 2020].

In this source, I have been able to gather research based on my last protest music genie from the Jamaican times BBM ( Before Bob Marley ). John Holt was the face of Jamaican Culture and music before the world had been taken by Marley. As Ali Campbell put it, “Holt was one of the first Jamaican artists to have a record on the British charts. He was one of my big heroes.” Born in 1947 in the Kingston community of Greenwich Town that would inspire “The Tide Is High”, John Kenneth Holt briefly considered concentrating on his schooling to become a doctor but the pull of music proved stronger. In his teens he was booed off when he first entered a talent contest hosted by the broadcaster Vere Johns but improved remarkably and eventually won the top prize on many occasions.

‘John Holt’

13. Majewski, G., 2020. Music Trends 2020: Where Is The Industry Headed? | DIY Musician Blog. [online] DIY Musician Blog. Available at: <https://diymusician.cdbaby.com/musician-tips/music-trends-2020/> [Accessed 11 March 2020].

This source gives an in-depth introduction to the music industry trends that are upcoming and evolving in 2020. For example, it says “2. genre’s are becoming a thing of the past” which is very true, the text says “Old Town Road” checks many boxes for country music, while simultaneously providing a hip-hop groove over a Nine Inch Nails sample, There are plenty of similar instances in charting country songs. The text then goes on to say “Lil Nas X has yet to make another country-leaning track. He does touch on many other styles, however, which is admirable. Acts like Tyler, the Creator have recently also dropped seemingly left field records,” which I would also agree heavily with, as an artist, it’s make it big or break it big situations at every decision you are given in the 21st century creative music industry.

‘Tyler, the creator’

14. En.wikipedia.org. 2020. Golden Age Hip Hop. [online] Available at: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden_age_hip_hop> [Accessed 11 March 2020].

This source provides me with the detailed information on the birth of now the most popular genre in the world, all due to new the technology created at the time, the turntables, where artist could instantly reload a track on their mixing setup to create a seamless loop. Hip – Hop evolved from certain areas of 70’s – 80’s house music and by 1985, rappers had begun to rap over the beats giving them a level platform to begin telling stories, being aggressive, hype up an audience or just play with words and metaphors, and so the true birth of the ‘Golden Age of Hip – Hop’ from around 1977 till latest 90’s. The golden age is noted for its innovation, a time “when it seemed that every new single reinvented the genre,” according to ‘Rolling Stone’, referring to ‘Hip-hop in its golden age’.

‘Public Enemy’

15. Miller, J., 2020. We’Re In The New Age Of Protest Music. [online] America Magazine. Available at: <https://www.americamagazine.org/arts-culture/2020/01/25/were-new-age-protest-music> [Accessed 11 March 2020].

In a divided country on an overheated planet, we need tunes to overcome. Political music peaked in the United States in the 1960s. It never went away. As pop music diversified, “within each of the styles grew a desire to sing about and to listen to music of social change, whether it’s hip-hop, rap, reggae, country or rock. Hip-hop might lead the fight. In “Alright,” Kendrick Lamar raps faithful resilience: “But if God got us then we gon’ be alright.” Childish Gambino’s “This is America” captured the pain of racial dysfunction.

The quote above would NOT have been the case during the 60’s all the way up until the 90’s. We live in a new era of music where freedom is being allowed and accessibility has never been higher so one off the best platforms for social change or protests now on earth is the music industry.

Part Four – Essay

How has technology changed the way we as humans experience music, from invention midi and digital music with step sequencers to the invention of the first vinyl player. The thing I want to talk about is how freeing, music is nowadays, being able to pick up a laptop and have have a song iv’e made on the same laptop go viral streaming across the globe. With this nonrestrictive playing field with music has given birth to what is now considered a genre of it’s own, “Protest Music”.

Protest music found it’s roots with reggae. With a very well known face we all know and love, Bob Marley. Marley really took to the freedom cause of the new wave of open music and bedroom producer age. He had found a voice in the world and only ever used his voice to spread the love of his music, but also did have some words to say about certain authoritarian regimes, “I wanted to say ‘I shot the Police’ but I know the government would have a fuss about it so I said “I shot the sheriff” instead, same idea, Justice.”

Coming from the 80’s into the early 90’s with the idea of protest music in mind. N.W.A, arguably the mot influential rap group of all time. Nowadays we all understand and acknowledge how artistically true their music was, bit it wasn’t always this way. Government politicians were always trying to find ways to have the means to shut N.W.A down as they saw them as a threat to their power and intelligence. To prove this I have evidence on how influential N.W.A and their music has been over the years, newer artists such as Lil Nas X and Tyler, the creator taking inspirations of N.W.A in the music, people now often, when talking about the modern music industry, say the ‘the 80’s are back in full effect’.

The modern form of protest music comes predominantly in a rap song. This is because rap is now the largest genre in the world, born with the birth of digital music, rap has now grown to the most popular genre in the world so trying to gain a voice is easiest with a rap song because nowadays, you know people will listen. This results in some very lazy music which can be seen as bad but also once again, gives us the freedom of music.

Throwing it back to the 80’s now with rap. Rap was booming, an article by ‘America Magazine’ (15) tells us that ‘Every person who released a single in this era of rap, reinvented the genre.’ The genre was young and full of potential, this is referred to by it’s fans as the ‘Golden Age of Hip Hop’. Hip Hop evolved from certain areas and trends of 70’s – 80’s house music, rappers has begun using vocals over the beats to tell stories or even in those days and places, sell product or advertise services etc. The rappers then took to their creative sides and started rhyming words and writing funny or clever metaphors, hey presto : ‘Rap’.

“Genre’s are becoming a thing of the past” says ‘DIY Musician Blog’ .”Old Town Road” checks many boxes for country music, while simultaneously providing a hip-hop groove over a Nine Inch Nails sample, There are plenty of similar instances in charting country songs. “Lil Nas X has yet to make another country-leaning track. He does touch on many other styles, however, which is admirable. Acts like Tyler, the Creator have recently also dropped seemingly left field records,” which I would also agree heavily with, as an artist, it’s make it big or break it big situations at every decision you are given in the 21st century creative music industry. This is raw proof of N.W.A’s influence. ‘it’s up to you, not them, what rap music you want to put out there’ – Ice Cube.

This is all evidence of the fact that the invention of midi and digital music has had on the world, we now have a genre which has been doubted but is now the most popular genre in the world. From this we also had new technology stemming from midi, for example, the poly-moog controller in 1975 which could synthesise sounds randomly but within a human ear range extremely efficiently for the first time, using computer based processing units.

the ‘Seven Integration‘ says “In the 70’s, the 8 – Track recorder was still being used to record music, portable synths and keyboards were being used but very rarely as this was considered extremely new technology at the time so few had enough budget to purchase one. during the 80’s, other massive industries were being formed through forms of media, like the gaming industry and mainstream Hollywood filming and home entertainment systems in general.” this is evidence of the midi and step sequencer invention’s impact.

Prior to the 70’s music was predominantly pop music. although it was said to have diversify often into other genres such as rock and rock genres, pop music general has stayed the same with light melodies over simple beats with a lead singer, pop has always generally appealed to the same audience. ‘In a divided country on an overheated planet, we need tunes to overcome. Political music peaked in the United States in the 1960s. It never went away. As pop music diversified, “within each of the styles grew a desire to sing about and to listen to music of social change, whether it’s hip-hop, rap, reggae, country or rock. Hip-hop might lead the fight.’ Said ‘America Magazine‘.

The ‘All About The Rock.‘ Quotes “For example, ‘easier promotion’. All it takes for someone to promote their music online nowadays, is to go to promotion websites and pay a fee, bang, your new song is being promoted a range of platforms, from popular social media, to on youtube. This is music different as 50 years ago, in the 70’s you would have to be under a label, paying out royalties on your music to even get your music on shelves in the first place.” This is all evidence on the influence that technology has had on the music industry.

In conclusion, music literally moves it’s trends with the latest technology. music would also not be without technological advancements especially in the auditory industry in general, that also includes some aspects of filmography etc. Technology is literally the heart of music has without technology music would sound extremely different today than what it actually does. For pure example, easier promotion with the invention of a computer based system to produce music. The list goes on and on with obvious pros to the latest tech in the music industry.

Bibliography

1. Hogan, M. (2020). Music Technology of the 1970s: A Timeline. [online] Pitchfork.com. Available at: https://pitchfork.com/features/lists-and-guides/9940-music-technology-of-the-1970s-a-timeline/ [Accessed 6 Mar. 2020].

2. JB, M. (2020). How To Get The Classic Studio Sound: 70s Rock, Pop and Disco. [online] MusicTech. Available at: https://www.musictech.net/guides/buyers-guide/classic-studio-sound-70s-rock-pop-disco/ [Accessed 6 Mar. 2020]

3. National Museums Liverpool. 2020. The 1980S And New Recording Techniques. [online] Available at: <https://www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/1980s-and-new-recording-techniques> [Accessed 10 March 2020].

4. Seven Integration. 2020. Music And Technology: A 50-Year History In The Making. [online] Available at: <https://sevenintegration.co.uk/music-technology-50-year-history-making/> [Accessed 10 March 2020].

5. White, D., 2020. 14 Of The Best Protest Songs Of The ’60S And ’70S. [online] LiveAbout. Available at: <https://www.liveabout.com/anti-war-protest-songs-of-the-60s-and-70s-748278> [Accessed 10 March 2020].

6. Sawer, P., 2020. People Still Suffering And Bob Marley’S Message As Relevant As Ever, Says Friend And Collaborator Junior Marvin. [online] The Telegraph. Available at: <https://www.telegraph.co.uk/music/interviews/junior-marvin-bob-marley-would-have-had-doubts-black-lives-matter/> [Accessed 10 March 2020].

7. Bbc.co.uk. 2020. How Listening To Music Has Changed – CBBC Newsround. [online] Available at: <https://www.bbc.co.uk/newsround/27101804> [Accessed 11 March 2020].

8. Scrimgeour, H., 2020. How Technology Is Changing The Music Business. [online] The Telegraph. Available at: <https://www.telegraph.co.uk/connect/small-business/business-solutions/how-technology-is-changing-music-business/> [Accessed 11 March 2020].

9. Deaux, J., 2020. THE IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY ON THE MUSIC INDUSTRY. [online] All About The Rock. Available at: <http://allabouttherock.co.uk/impact-technology-music-industry/> [Accessed 11 March 2020].

10. Deaux, J., 2020. THE IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY ON THE MUSIC INDUSTRY. [online] All About The Rock. Available at: <http://allabouttherock.co.uk/impact-technology-music-industry/> [Accessed 11 March 2020].

11. D. Kennedy, G., 2020. The Moment N.W.A Changed The Music World. [online] Los Angeles Times. Available at: <https://www.latimes.com/entertainment/music/la-et-ms-nwa-parental-discretion-20171205-htmlstory.html> [Accessed 11 March 2020].

12. Perrone, P., 2020. John Holt: Reggae Artist Best Known For Writing ‘The Tide Is High’. [online] The Independent. Available at: <https://www.independent.co.uk/news/obituaries/john-holt-reggae-artist-best-known-for-writing-the-tide-is-high-9862367.html> [Accessed 11 March 2020].

13. Majewski, G., 2020. Music Trends 2020: Where Is The Industry Headed? | DIY Musician Blog. [online] DIY Musician Blog. Available at: <https://diymusician.cdbaby.com/musician-tips/music-trends-2020/> [Accessed 11 March 2020].

14. En.wikipedia.org. 2020. Golden Age Hip Hop. [online] Available at: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden_age_hip_hop> [Accessed 11 March 2020].

15. Miller, J., 2020. We’Re In The New Age Of Protest Music. [online] America Magazine. Available at: <https://www.americamagazine.org/arts-culture/2020/01/25/were-new-age-protest-music> [Accessed 11 March 2020].

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